From Kara- Kyrgyz, to the Republic of Kyrgyzstan – History of independence
In 1916 russian power reached a small country in the eastern Asia, Kyrgyzstan. During the I World War, Russia tried to assemble military forces out of eastern countries. Kyrgyz majority protested against Russian intervention and Russian government answered with killing one-sixth of Kyrgyz people.
After fall of Russian tsar in 1917, new soviet government took control over central Asia including Kyrgyzstan, which was called after, Kara- Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast. In 1920s, Kyrgyz society had to face cultural, economical, educational and social changes. Especially process of social and economical development was in stagnation.
In 1936 Kirghiz Republic became a full member of the Soviet Union and at this time it was called Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
For the next 60 years communism should coin the Kyrgyz society. Kyrgyz social structure was deeply influenced by nomadic traditions, governing political philosophies and socialization. Therefore classical Russian ethnic groups were injected in Kyrgyz communities in order to distribute Russian culture, communism and Leninism.
With the inauguration of Mikhail Gorbachev in March 1985 and his realization of glasnost and perestroika, political culture of Kyrgyzstan started to change.. Kyryz media became more independent, and started to inform public in a liberal way, which constituted new publication.
In 1990 oppositon which was formed out of anti- communist political parties , has established a party called Kyrgyzstan Democratic Movement, which took part in political and social life of Kyrgyz nation. The movement grew really fast and became a strong political force with a lot of support in the parliament. In the following year the new liberal president, Askar Akayev, introduced new government structures and in December 1990 the Supreme Soviet decided to change the name Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic into – the Republic of Kyrgyzstan and the name of the capital, Frunze, was changed into Bishkek.
In the following weeks of year 1991 the Soviet Union started to collapse. In August the Supreme Soviet, voted declaring independence from the Soviet Union, and Kyrgyzstan became the first out of five Republics of Soviet in Central Asia to break away.