The way to democracy – Politics of Kyrgyzstan
Politics of Kyrgyzstan takes place in the framework of parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the President is the head of the state and the Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan is the head of the government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both government and the parliament. The first constitution from 1993 is orientated by western ideal and was founded by the government of Askar Akayev. But in the following years the OSCE (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe) accused the government being corrupt especially during election time, where the elections were far away from freedom and fairness.
In 2005 after parliamentary election, Kyrgyzstan was thrown into the state of political turmoil which was called Tulip Revolution
The revolution was responsible for the fall of the president, Askar Akayev, and he got replaced by Kurmanbek Bakiyev, the opposition People´s Movement leader. But just one year later Bakiyev was confronted with a political crisis when thousands of people started to demonstrate against the corrupt political system. He promised to reform the constitutional system, to limit the power of the executive and to give more authority to the parliament. But on the other side he accused the opposition of plotting a coup against him. Some members of parliament got killed during the political unrest. In April 2010 opposition got arrested in the town of Talas. A lot of protestors fought for their freedom and took control over the governmental building. Police from Bishkek were sent to Talas to bring the unrest under control. In the next following days the situation escalated and hundreds of protestors got arrested, and dozen got killed. The new government was created under opposition leader Roza Otunbayeva. Kurmanbek Bakiyev fled to Belarus where he got asylum by the local president.
New constitution was concluded by the new government
Power of the parliament increased, while the power of the president got reduced. The first elections of Kyrgyz new constitution were held in October 2010. Five parties got the chance to enter the young democracy parliament, and formed the governing coalition.